HAE global awareness day for a rare life-threatening primary immunodeficiency
15 May 2020
Patient organizations from around the world will come together on Friday 16 May to support a global awareness day for the rare, potentially life-threatening primary immunodeficiency condition known as Hereditary Angioedema (HAE).
“HAE patients often experience very poor quality of life, living in fear of their next attack. Through the annual hae day we aim to increase awareness of the condition. Currently, patients can wait up to 13 years for an accurate diagnosis and correct treatment. Our aim is to help ensure each and every patient receives faster diagnosis and the care they deserve to enable them to lead a healthy life,” explains Mr. Henrik Balle Boysen, Executive Vice President & Chief Operating Officer of HAE International, the international patient organization leading the day.
“There are just under 100 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE in South Africa. HAE is estimated to have a prevalence between 1:50000 and 1:150000 worldwide. HAE is a rare hereditary, genetic disorder causing swelling to various parts of the body, which, when the swelling affects the throat, can result in suffocation”, says Boysen.
The main symptom of HAE is swelling of the skin, called ‘edema’, and occurring mainly in the face (e.g. lips, eyelids), although the extremities and genitals are often affected. Swelling of the internal organs, specifically the mucous membranes of the larynx, nose or tongue, is potentially life threatening. More than 50 per cent of HAE patients will experience at least one attack of this type in their lifetime.
Patients are frequently misdiagnosed as HAE symptoms often resemble those of more common conditions such as the frequent occurrence of abdominal attacks. Previously this was not considered life-threatening but new evidence suggests that the swelling can progress upwards to the larynx making it potentially dangerous. HAE places extraordinary strain on patients, often restricting their ability to lead normal lives. Untreated HAE patients can lose at least 100 to 150 workdays per year. Currently there is no cure for HAE, but treatment options are available to try and prevent attacks from occurring or to treat them when they do occur.
HAE International is a global organization dedicated to raising awareness of C1 inhibitor deficiencies. HAE patients have a defect in the gene that controls a blood protein called C1-inhibitor, and therefore the disorder is also commonly referred to as C1-inhibitor deficiency, and is considered a primary immunodeficiency of complement proteins. International is a non-profit network of presently 84 national HAE patient organizations spread across the globe.
HAE International was established to promote co-operation, co-ordination and information sharing between HAE specialists and national HAE patient associations in order to help facilitate the availability of effective diagnosis and management of C1 inhibitor deficiencies throughout the world. Its purpose is to join the efforts and experience of the global HAE community to achieve optimal standards of care and treatment for all those patients affected by C1 inhibitor deficiencies.
“We are very encouraged by the level of participation from the HAE national organizations across the globe and hope that the awareness day will make a real difference to lives of HAE sufferers in the future. Spreading the word about HAE could be crucial in saving the lives of undiagnosed HAE patients around the world,” Dr Boysen concludes.
The official International hae day Website at www.haeday.org
Facebook page at www.facebook.com/haeday
Twitter account at YouTube channel at www.youtube.com/haedaychannel
For more information:
For further information on HAE, access to patient case studies and clinicians please contact email@example.com
The official International hae day
Website at www.haeday.org
Facebook page at www.facebook.com/haeday
Twitter account at YouTube channel at www.youtube.com/haedaychannel
HAE South Africa Adrienne de Jongh on 083 541 0476 or firstname.lastname@example.org
AFSA Lynn Kämpf on 081 405 8442 or email@example.com
HAE frequently asked questions
Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by episodes of swelling (edema attacks) in different areas of the skin or the internal organs. In particular, it occurs in the upper respiratory tract and intestine.1,2 Episodes affecting the larynx or tongue are particularly dangerous and can cause death by suffocation if untreated. How many people are affected by HAE? Exact figures regarding the incidence of HAE are not available. It is estimated that about 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 50,000 people are affected worldwide. When do the symptoms of HAE first occur?
Most patients experience their first attack during childhood or adolescence, and then continue to suffer from subsequent attacks throughout the duration of their lives.
How do the symptoms of HAE manifest themselves?
An episode of HAE involves an acute swelling of the skin or mucous membranes, primarily affecting the limbs, face and neck as well as the buttocks and genitalia. Although this swelling of the skin is almost never associated with itching, it causes a feeling of tension, the severity of which ranges from unpleasant to painful. The facial swelling can be disfiguring. Swelling can also occur in the wall of the intestine. This swelling is associated with colicky pain and can cause diarrhea, vomiting and circulatory disorders. In extreme cases, even intestinal paralysis and intestinal obstruction are possible.1,2,5,10 The most feared complication of HAE is swelling in the larynx (laryngeal edema) or upper respiratory tract, which can cause death by suffocation if left untreated.2,6-8
The frequency, duration and severity of attacks vary considerably. Approximately 22 per cent of patients report a frequency of greater than one attack per month; 40 per cent of patients experience on average 6 to 11 attacks per year; and the remaining 22 per cent are infrequently symptomatic.1 In most cases, the symptoms of HAE are transient, progressing over 12 to 36 hours, and then subsiding gradually over the next two to five days. However, some patients may experience attacks that last over a week.1,5 Although HAE episodes are self-limiting, the unpredictable occurrence of attacks places considerable strain on patients, often restricting their ability to lead normal lives. Untreated, patients with HAE lose up to 100 to 150 workdays per year and have a morbidity approaching 50 per cent.11
If an episode of HAE involves laryngeal attacks this may lead to airway obstruction and have the potential to cause death by asphyxiation.2,6-8 Amongst HAE patients suffering from edema of the larynx, the estimated mortality rate of untreated attacks is as high as 40 per cent if the attack is not treated adequately.10 If the mucous membranes in the larynx start to swell, immediate medical treatment is required. It may be necessary to intubate the patient or make an emergency incision in the windpipe (tracheotomy) if appropriate treatment is not available.
HAE is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 11, which leads to a deficiency of the protein C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). This protein is part of a system known as the complement system, which is involved in the complex interaction leading to immune and inflammatory reactions in the body. Among other things, C1-INH controls release of the tissue hormone bradykinin. If either C1-INH concentration or activity is decreased, bradykinin concentrations may increase and an episode of swelling can occur. There are two types of HAE. Type I is the most common (approximately 85 per cent of cases) and involves a C1-INH deficiency resulting from insufficient production of the enzyme. Type II affects approximately 15 per cent of patients and involves normal or even elevated C1-INH concentrations but reduced C1-INH activity (function). Recently, a rare third form of the disease has been discovered. Unlike the other two subtypes of HAE, this subtype is not associated with a C1-INH deficiency. It affects mostly women and is reported to be associated with a mutation of factor XII.12,13,14
Episodes of HAE often occur without an obvious trigger. However, in some cases, a cause can be identified. For instance, infections, minor injuries and mechanical stimuli such as pressure can induce an attack.
Dental procedures or surgery to remove the tonsils are particularly critical, as they can cause swelling in the larynx. Emotional and mental stress can also trigger an attack.
Hormonal factors are another known cause of HAE attacks. For example, the frequency of episodes can be higher in women taking products containing estrogen (“the pill”), products for menopausal complaints, or who have their menstruation. A class of blood pressure lowering drugs known as ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors are contraindicated in HAE patients as they have also been shown to trigger HAE attacks in some patients. HAE patients should therefore avoid taking this type of medication.
The defect on chromosome 11 that is responsible for HAE is equally common in men and women and can be passed on by both sexes. As HAE is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease, there is a 50 per cent risk of a child inheriting the disease from the affected parent. Male and female offspring are at equal risk of inheriting HAE.
The larynx can swell both spontaneously and after an injury to the oral mucosa, e.g. during dental treatment. The first signs will be difficulty swallowing, voice changes and hoarseness. Increasing swelling in the larynx then leads to breathlessness, which can cause suffocation in extreme cases. If a patient experiences these symptoms, he or she should seek medical help immediately.
If the patient has recurrent episodes of edema affecting the limbs, face, neck or buttocks and lasting several hours to days, HAE should be considered as a diagnosis. HAE can also be the cause of recurrent colicky pain in the abdominal cavity. If a family history is already known to include cases of HAE, it is very reasonable to suspect HAE the first time it occurs in another family member. Failure to respond to drugs administered for allergic reactions, such as antihistamines, corticosteroids and adrenaline, is also used to distinguish HAE from allergic edema. However, the diagnosis of HAE is confirmed by special blood tests in which the concentration and activity of C1-INH and the concentrations of other proteins in the complement system are measured. The concentration and/or activity of C1-INH are reduced in patients with HAE.
In principle, women with HAE can have children. HAE does not impair fertility. However, women who are being treated with androgens should stop taking them, as this treatment can impair female fertility. Episodes of HAE can increase or decrease during pregnancy, as can the severity of the edema. Your doctor will follow you closely during this time and discuss appropriate treatment with you.
HAE is a rare and relatively unknown disease. In addition, the symptoms of an episode of HAE are similar to those of much more common diseases, e.g. an allergy or appendicitis. This makes it difficult to diagnose HAE correctly. HAE can also be confused with other forms of angioedema, e.g. allergic angioedema. However, the drugs used to treat this form of angioedema, such as cortisone and antihistamines, have no effect on the symptoms of HAE. Diagnosing HAE is particularly difficult if the patient suffers predominantly from gastrointestinal attacks. If HAE is suspected, the diagnosis can be confirmed quickly by a blood test.
There are three established treatment options for HAE: acute treatment, long-term prophylaxis and short-term prophylaxis.
The aim of acute treatment is to stop progression of the edema and to resolve the symptoms. This applies particularly to episodes in the larynx, which can cause death if left untreated.
The recommended options for acute treatment vary from country to country due to the fact that drugs for specific treatment are not licensed in all countries. In these cases acute treatment may be limited to more unspecific drugs such as tranexamic acid or even just painkillers. In countries where it is available, Icatibant or C1-INH concentrate can be used for the treatment of acute attacks. Icatibant must be administered by subcutaneous injection by a healthcare professional, C1-INH concentrate must be administered intravenously.
Long-term prophylaxis is indicated in patients whose quality of life is clearly reduced by the disease. These are usually patients in whom episodes occur more than once a month or who are at high risk of developing laryngeal edema. The aim is to reduce the frequency and/or the severity of HAE attacks.
Short-term prophylaxis is usually performed before surgical procedures or dental treatment. In countries in which C1-INH concentrate is available, it is administered 60 to 90 minutes before the procedure as an intravenous infusion. In all other countries in Europe high-dose treatment with androgens is administered for 5-7 days beforehand.
- Agostoni A, Aygoren-Pursun E, Binkley KE, et al. Hereditary and acquired angioedema: problems and progress: proceedings of the third C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency workshop and beyond. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114(3 Suppl):S51-131.
- Bork K, Meng G, Staubach P, Hardt J. Hereditary angioedema: new findings concerning symptoms, affected organs, and course. Am J Med 2006;119(3):267-74.
- Jesic R, Culafic D, Bonaci-Nikolic B. Hereditary angioedema presenting with recurrent ascites. Dig Dis Sci 2005;50(1):24-6.
- Branco-Ferreira M, Pedro E, Barbosa MA, Carlos AG. Ascites in hereditary angioedema. Allergy 1998;53(5):543-5.
- Bork K, Staubach P, Eckardt AJ, Hardt J. Symptoms, course, and complications of abdominal attacks in hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101(3):619-27.
- Bork K, Barnstedt SE. Laryngeal edema and death from asphyxiation after tooth extraction in four patients with hereditary angioedema. J Am Dent Assoc 2003;134(8):1088-94.
- Bork K, Hardt J, Schicketanz KH, Ressel N. Clinical studies of sudden upper airway obstruction in patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency. Arch Intern Med 2003;163(10):1229-35.
- Bork K, Siedlecki K, Bosch S, Schopf RE, Kreuz W. Asphyxiation by laryngeal edema in patients with hereditary angioedema. Mayo Clinic Proc 2000;75(4):349-54.
- Bowen T, Cicardi M, Bork K, et al. Hereditary angiodema: a current state-of-the-art review, VII: Canadian Hungarian 2007 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2008;100(1 Suppl 2):S30-40.
- Data on file.
- Bracho FA. Hereditary angioedema. Curr Op Hematol 2005;12(6):493-8.
- Dray A. Kinins and their receptors in hyperalgesia. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1997;75(6):704-12.
- Bas M, Adams V, Suvorava T, Niehues T, Hoffmann TK, Kojda G. Nonallergic angioedema: role of bradykinin. Allergy 2007;62(8):842-56.
- Kaplan AP, Joseph K, Silverberg M. Pathways for bradykinin formation and inflammatory disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109(2):195-209. pathophysiology of angioedema. Int Immunopharmacol 2003;3(3):311-7.